Though Burns was obviously guilty, 'Humanity Dick' sensed that- as so often happened in those days- the magistrates seemed hesitant to convict. Cab horses were mercilessly beaten and half starved. Slowly, the society was growing from strength to strength, and by 1834 one of the committee members, Sir John de Beauvoir, went to Paris where, with French help, a society was subsequently started. Ancestry.co.uk have now transcribed the entire collection of Essex parish registers. The trail that was to help children can be said to have started in New York where-as a direct result of British efforts-magnificent work had been done in suppressing cruelty to animals in the US. On April 10, 1866, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by philanthropist and diplomat Henry Bergh, 54. This remarkable man not only provided his time for nothing- he paid all the out-of-pocket expenses when there was no money in the bank. Bergh immediately promised to interfere on behalf of the 'little animal.' A vice-patron of the RSPCA since 1839, she worked 60 years for the Society and founded the Ladies Education Committee. Martin, other members of parliament, clergy, and other supporters, met in Old Slaughter's Coffee House, St Martin's Lane in London, and formed the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Robbers lay in wait for sailors stepping ashore from their ships after months, even years, at sea. A man of great urbanity and wit, of passion and perseverance, "Humanity Dick" was a tremendous character, as his portrait in the Society's boardroom shows. Unfortunately, the wording of the law prevented them from stopping bull-baiting, bear-baiting, badger-baiting and dog-fighting, and a show during which a lion which was set upon by six dogs. Walking across the acres of broken glass- will anyone who lived through those days ever forget that Sunday?-they were searching for animals in need of help. His first, two years previously just after Martin's Act had been passed, had failed- and it is interesting to note that the same fate befell a group of people in Liverpool who even earlier in 1809 formed a "Society for the Suppression and Prevention of Wanton Cruelty to Animals". The Society also created a heated debate on the rights of conducting experiments on living animals for the 'improvement of medical science'. This pleasant afternoon is not perhaps the appropriate moment to dwell too much on the misery of the horses of those days. Richard Martin nicknamed "Humanity Dick" by George IV was delighted, came to the meeting, and, among others who attended was a quiet, gentle man with a great social conscience His name was William Wilberforce. In the early days one animal above all merited the attention of the Society-ironically the one animal which least of all should have needed protection from man: the horse. The aims of the Society was to not only prevent cruelty to animals, but to also educate their owners. One man was determined to see that animal justice was done, to try and assist the police who in those days had more than enough work enforcing the laws protecting life and property. Indeed he refused to take up the case. Stephenson's famous locomotive "The Rocket' was not built until 1829-seven years after Martin's Bill became law-and the stagecoach was still the chief means of traveling. RSPCA Qld has a long, rich history of caring for all creatures great and small that spans over 130 years. It eventually became known as the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Another ridiculous statement frequently leveled at the RSPCA is that animal charities receive better financial support than children's charities. RSPCA Countryside Alliance Ireland. Founded in 1824. That Society owes its present position greatly to the help afforded by your Society, and especially are we indebted to Mr Colam, for the wonderful energy and discernment he has thrown into the work of the establishment of the offspring born of your admirable institution.'. Often they could not be watered in times that were hard (for both man and beast, it must be said). Gompertz and a few friends hastily collected enough money to pay the debts, and Mr Broome was released. Bill Burns was fined- and Dick Martin received all the publicity he wanted. Founded in 1824, the RSPCA is the oldest animal welfare organisation in the world. Other supplies went to Syria and Lebanon, and when hostilities ended there, the remaining materials were sent on to Greece. Newspaper archives are now a very important source of information for researching your family tree. HRH adds that she is most deeply touched and grateful allow me once more to add my personal gratitude for the assistance granted to us by your Society.'. In 1956 the Societies were given the Royal Warrant and they became known as the … Ammoland Inc. Posted on September 20, 2013 April 25, 2016 by F Riehl, Editor in Chief. This help had been of great use to the Royal Army Veterinary Corps and I would like to express my appreciation of the fact that the lot of animals who have helped us to win the War has not been forgotten. 'There is a little animal suffering from the unkind treatment of a bad woman.' More and more branches were opened- in Dublin, Wakefield, Plymouth. for Galway, was a vociferous campaigner for the bill, in fact, he described himself as 'the father of the Act', and sometimes the law is called Martin's Act. He himself prosecuted a costermonger called Bill Burns with cruelty to an ass. By 1832, however, there was more money in the bank- for the time being anyway, and two inspectors were appointed at a salary of 10 s. a week, plus the moieties of penalties in successful prosecutions; others followed them, doing magnificent work in those early years, often in the face of ridicule, unfounded charges of bribery, and on many occasions at great personal risk, as when two inspectors went to Hanworth in Middlesex to try and stop a proposed cock fight. It approached overseas powers through official channels, asking them to add animal welfare legislations to the laws of their country, while in some countries, local British residents took the initiative, starting societies in cities like Naples and Turin. He tried to persuade her from pursuing the matter. The building has long since been demolished, though there is a plaque on a shop near Long Acre to commemorate the founding of the Society. ', BOOKS AND ARTICLES ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE RSPCA, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to animals, The Times 17 June 1824 (a report of the inaugural meeting of the SPCA), Harrison, Brian, animals and the State in Nineteenth-Century England, English Historical Review October 1973, p 786-820, Fairholme, E G & Pain, W, A Century of Work For Animals: the History of the RSPCA 1824-1924, Lynam, Shevawn, Humanity Dick, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1975, Moss, Arthur W, Valiant Crusade: the History of the RSPCA, London: Cassell, 1961, Pain, Wellesley, Richard Martin, London: Leonard Parson, 1925, Brown, Antony, Who Cares for animals? Two men were responsible for the early efforts: the Secretary of the RSPCA in London, Mr John Colam, and Mr Henry Bergh of New York who, helped by Mr Colam, founded the American SPCA in New York with branches soon flourishing in many American cities. When was the RSPCA founded? The Essex Record Office 'ERO' are custodians of the parish registers of Essex. Shelters for horses sprang up in garages no longer needed because of petrol rationing. It seemed an excellent plan-until the first horse got stuck in the hall. Facts about RSPCA present the ideas about the charitable organization in England and Wales. Founded in 1824, we are the oldest animal welfare organisation in the world. Ever since, the RSPCA has had a close association with Royalty. Gompertz has often been described as an eccentric. He was not going to allow the magistrates to forget his Act, which in broad terms, stipulated that anyone ill-treating larger animals faced a fine of up to £5, or imprisonment for up to two months. Now comes a fascinating slice of history even if it is a digression- the curious manner in which the RSPCA by chance became involved in leading the way to the formation of another great society-the NSPCC. United Kingdom. They belonged to men who had come to attend a meeting- one which was to succeed magnificently; a meeting to discuss ways of protecting animals from cruelty. Galsworthy wrote a series of damning articles in the daily Mail which were of tremendous help. 11 August 1914Society registered under the Associations Incorporation Act 1895 - name changed to The WA Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Incorporated). Old smithfield Market, 1824.Image courtesy of Yale Center for British Art PD. Yet during the next two years, the newly-formed SPCA all but foundered. However, SPCA is not associated with either RSPCA or ASCPA. (Baroness Burdett-Coutts, by the way, was born in 1814, and was a great friend of Queen Victoria's. They included the Royal Humane Society in 1774, the Glasgow Humane Society in 1790, and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) in 1824.. The house had been smashed by a bomb anyway, so men from the demolition squad took down the hallway a few bricks at a time until the horse-which seemed to accept the situation quite calmly-was free to proceed. That man was the Reverend Arthur Broome, who at the age of 42 had become Vicar of the parish of Bromley-by-Bow. RSPCA ACT was formed in 1955 followed by the Northern Territory in 1965. Founded Date Jan 1, 1871; Operating Status Active; Also Known As RSPCA Qld; Legal Name The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Queensland (RSPCA Qld) She lived through five reigns, and when she died in 1906 she was buried in Westminister Abbey, with two inspectors of the RSPCA attending the lying-in-state.). It tried to ameliorate the shocking conduct of the Smithfield meat market, to punish cat skinners, men who used dogs as draft animals, and to alleviate the misery of horses. We do not even know where he was buried when he died in 1837- but we do know that this quiet unassuming pioneer (who also had a practical streak to his character) was destined to change the face of humanity in its attitude to animals, that from these early endeavors a crusade of animal welfare would eventually encompass the globe. Stray cats slithered like treacle over fences as they any mangy dogs prowled for scraps or escaped the grasping hands of animal thieves. For two years Mr. Broome struggled to interest people- and raise money. By January 1826, the Society was nearly £300 in debt and even though Ann Radcliffe, one of the most successful novelists of her time, left a legacy of £100, the Society's first office- in the Quadrant in Regent Street- had to be closed, and future meetings had to take place in coffee houses. That a Committee be appointed to adopt measures for Inspecting the Markets and Streets of the Metropolis, the Slaughter Houses, the conduct of Coachmen, etc.- etc, consisting of the following Gentlemen: T F Buxton Esqr. Later acts of Parliament extended the list of animals under protection. The RSPCA has been influential throughout history in changing the law to improve animal welfare. At first the busses had no brakes, but one of the great workers for the Society, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, came to the rescue. The lady accepted the message as a dying charge and went to the police. Wheeler was the first of the now famous corps of over 250 British inspectors who today work for the RSPCA, and a year after the Society was formed, Wheeler asked for an assistant. Mr Colam became a member of the NSPCC Council and Committee, and thus began a liaison between the two bodies which has continued happily ever since. To Dick Martin must go the honour of being the first man in the world to force through any Parliament a law establishing as a legal principle that animals have certain rights. Even better, the comedians in the music halls started singing a new ditty: Much of the early success of the SPCA rested on its attempts to enforce Martin's Law, and from the earliest days the Society had employed an Inspector- indeed it seems that Mr Broome even employed a Mr Wheeler personally form 1822-when his first efforts to form the Society failed- until 1824 when it was successfully launched. He would never, he said, do anything that would cause suffering to animals and it was a creed he stuck to every day of his life, not only did he refuse to eat meat, but he would never ride in a coach because of the suffering to the horses. T G Meymott Esqr. The alleys near the docks were dark, dank, and foul with refuse. Nicknames: Dog of Doom, Boom Head-shot, How Much Is That Doggy In The Window?, Evil Man, Lampoon's ''Death'' Issue, Puppy RansomClassified: Lewis Gompertz who had attended the first meeting was appointed "Hon. Within two years the Princess was to become Queen Victoria and her encouragement of the Society's activities was immediate and generous. Link below already formatted for Essex and Postcards. The SPCA was founded in 1824 and was renamed the RSPCA in 1840. He gave it his approval-and before long there was a brake on every bus. The oldest SPCA organization is the RSPCA, which was founded in England in 1824. Benjamin Waugh, usually regarded as the founder of the NSPCC, said: 'Your Society, the RSPCA, has given birth to a kindred institution whose object is the protection of defenceless children. This site is not a law firm and cannot offer legal advice. RSPCA was initially established as Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals (SPCA) in 1824. In a curious manner, the centuries were spanned when the Society advocated a quick-release device to disengage a fallen horse from his harness. Why was the Rspca founded? While the civilian animals had to be taken care of, a great deal of assistance was needed for the horses and mules in the war fronts-particularly those used by our allies. Thanks largely to Colam- backed by Dr Barnado among others-his efforts succeeded and by 1886 the NSPCC was being granted the use of the RSPCA's boardroom in Jermyn Street for its meetings. Ltd. ISBN 0 85864 112 7, Ryder, Richard, Victims of Science: The Use of Animals in Research - Chapter 14 The History of Compassion, London, Davis-Poynter Ltd., ISBN 0 7067 0151 8. It was founded with the purpose of protecting carriage horses from cruelty. Image courtesy of psd CC-BY. The first humane societies were founded in the United Kingdom. You've done this cleverly,' replied Bergh. They would have to be brought one by one through the hall of a half-demolished house. A row of the then fashionable stove-pipe hats hung from the rack near the front door. The help of the RSPCA forming this sister organisation was given public acknowledgement at a meeting in the Royal Albert Hall in 1887 when the Rev. In one period of ten years the RSPCA spent over £250,000 on advocating humane slaughter. Here are a few photos to show where we have come from. 'But don't worry-I will not go back on my promise.'. Eleven of the Society's clinics were damaged in raids. Not only was the Society concerned with bringing cruelty cases to court; equally important was its painstaking effort to get new Bills on the Statute Book, its magnificent work in alleviating the cruelty in the slaughter of animals. Organization: RSPCA. She had enormous energy. 16 June 1824: The world's oldest animal charity, the RSPCA, is founded MPs William Wilberforce and Richard 'Humanity Dick' Martin met in Old Slaughter's Coffee House to … The immediate result was that Mr Bergh was inundated with so many cases of cruelty to children that a New York society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was formed. 'Yes, please, madam. : 150 years of the RSPCA, London: William Heinemann Ltd 1974/SBN 434 90189x, Budd, Wallace, Hear the Other Side: The RSPCA in South Australia 1875-1988, Australia, Investigator Press Pty. A suitable brake had been invented and she arranged for the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) to come and see it. Most of this funding comes from public donations and fundraising events, as well as business partnerships, grants and RSPCA patrons. An artist called Matthews painted a picture of the scene. However, it soon became clear to the Society that active prosecutions would also be required. For the previous six months supporters of the Society had employed an agent to operate in Smithfield Market in London where he had identified over 63 men who had been abusing their animals. A Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) is a common name for non-profit animal welfare organizations around the world. It came in the form of a letter dated July 4, 1835, from Kensington Palace, and it read: 'I have laid before the Duchess of Kent your letter of the 2 nd inst. Most of this funding comes from public donations and fundraising events, as well as business partnerships, grants and RSPCA patrons. At the end of the war, Field-Marshall Viscount Montgomery sent a letter of appreciation to the RSPCA: 'I wish to express, through you and your Committee, my sense of gratitude to all those who, by their financial contributions, have made it possible for your Society to provide means to alleviate the suffering of animals needed during the 1939-45 War. But it was in the following year that fortune smiled on the SPCA. In 1942 alone supplies worth £27,000 were sent by the Society-only eight per cent being lost by enemy action. On one particular Sunday morning after an all-night blitz, RSPCA officials went to the East End of London, which had been badly hit. Alas, the money ran out, and Inspector Wheeler's services had to be dispensed with, though he seems to have continued working as a volunteer, and was presented with the Society's Silver Medal in recognition of his services. By 1826 the funds were coming to an end and much of the work was suspended for nearly two years, even though Mr. Broome had resigned his living to devote his whole time to the cause. Around the same time John Colam (who so actively helped to start the NSPCC) invented a device operated by a spring which assisted the starting of a tram, and thus eased the load for the horses. Our history The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in Australia was formed in Victoria in 1871. ', 'Humanity Dick's' fame spread as far as the US, and today the San Francisco SPCA bears on a frieze these words: 'Richard Martin known as 'Humanity Dick,' author of the first law to protect animals in England- 1822.'. The one at Southwark, London, was obliterated by a direct hit and its manager killed. Richard Martin, M.P. The young Society was served by energetic and dedicated committee members, yet few had sufficient funds to tide the organisation over. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, better known as the RSPCA, is Britain's largest animal charity and has been preventing cruelty to animals since 1824. What is now the RSPCA Liverpool Branch is probably the oldest animal charity in the world. Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1972, Bovine Animals (Records, Identification and Movement) Order 1995, Cattle Identification (Enforcement) Regulations 1997, Control of Pollution (Anglers' Lead Weights) Regulations 1986, Coypu (Prohibition on Keeping) Order 1987, Endangered Species (Import & Export) Act 1976, Environmental Protection (Stray Dogs0 Regulations 1992, Export of Animals (Protection) Order 1981, Export of Horses (Excepted Cases) Order 1969, Export of Horses (Veterinary Examinations) Order 1966, Heather & Grass etc (Burning) Regulations 1986, Importation of Birds, Poultry and Hatching Eggs Order 1979, Movement of Animals (Records) Orders 1960 -1961 - 1989, Movement of Animals (Restrictions) Order 1990, Musk Rat (Prohibitions of Importing and Keeping) Order 1933, Performing Animals (Regulations) Act 1925, Pigs (Records, Identification and Movement) Order 1995, Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973 Sec 35, Protection of Animals (Amendment) Act 1954, Protection of Animals (Amendment) Act 1988, Protection of Animals (Amendment) Act 1954 and 1964, Public Health (Control of disease) Act 1984, Removal of Antlers in Velvet (Anaesthetics) Order 1980, Sheep & Goats (Identification, Records & Movement) Order 1996, Slaughterhouses (Hygiene) Regulations 1977, Spring Traps (Approval) (Variations) Order 1988, Transit of Animals (Road & Rail) Order 1975, Veterinary Surgery (Blood Sampling) Order 1983, Veterinary Surgery (Exemptions) Order 1962, Welfare of Animals (Slaughter or Killing) Regulations 1995, Welfare of Animals (Transport) Order 1997, Welfare of Horses at Markets (and Other Places of Sale) Order 1990, Welfare of Livestock (Prohibited Operations) Regulations 1982, Wildlife & Countryside (Regulations and Ringing of Certain Captive Birds) Regulations 1982, Wildlife & countryside (Ringing of Certain Birds) Regulations 1982. Then on the results page click on ârequest imageâ and you will be taken to the ERO website where you can purchase an image of the relevant page. Over the years, the Society issued thousands of copies of 'The Horse Book' dealing with the care of horses. The people who founded Rspca are the people who started the charity up at the beginning. The act made it an offence for any person to 'wantonly and cruelly beat, abuse, or ill treat any horse, mare, gelding, mule, ass, ox, cow, heifer, steer, sheep, or other cattle'. He not only endeavored to abolish dog-pits- where animals fought to the death for the amusement of the onlookers- but he tried to ban bull-fighting and bull-baiting; perhaps even more important, he arranged for committee members to hold regular meetings with magistrates in an attempt to make them realise the importance of enforcing Martin's Act. At the meeting the members discussed whether the use of agents (later called inspectors) to carry out prosecutions should be extended, or whether the Society should only educate and advise. The Society later received royal patronage. Its patron is Queen Elizabeth II. So it all started in Old Slaughter's Coffee House, famous as a resort of painters and actors. MP, Richard Martin Esqr., MP, Sir James Graham, L B Allen Esqr., C C Wilson Esqr., Jno. It financed mechanical stunning devices, bought the patents of other humane inventions. Founded in 1824, it is the oldest and largest animal welfare organisation in the world and is one of the largest charities in the UK. 2 August 1892Society formally constituted under the name The West Australian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Jul 1, 2016 - We were founded in a London coffee shop in 1824. In the next room there lives a woman who has a child. The RSPCA’s Fears Are Well Founded – Animal Rights Venom Not Appreciated. Some ideas failed; others succeeded beyond man's wildest dreams. And in this, of course, 'Humanity Dick' was only too eager to help. Ebay is a good source of old images of Essex towns and villages. Henry Bergh served as the Society’s president until his … Each realized the need for an organised effort to educate and publicise, to enforce the law, particularly as the magistrates in the Britain of those days viewed Martin's Act with, in the words of one historian, "professional torpor." Of course in the early days of the Society, Britain was entirely dependent on the horse for the land transport of humans and freight. The question of how this law could be properly enforced resulted in ameeting of like minded people on 25 June 1824. The men present knew they were creating the world’s first animal welfare charity, but they couldn't have imagined the size and shape that the charity would become today. MP, Basil Montagu Esqr., Revd. Following Richard Martin's first animal welfare bill in 1822, which targeted cruelty to farm and working animals, Pease's Act of 1835 extended the law to protect dogs and other domestic animals. The charity had made 141,760 investigations related to complaints on animal cruelty. It was passed after much opposition lasting several years. Within the first year the Society reported that by using paid agents as witnesses there had been 144 convictions for cruelty, mainly among 'bullock drovers' and horse dealers. The bird … Mr Bergh was commended and the child was given proper care. RSPCA collection box.Image courtesy of psd CC-BY. Search now on Ancestry for your Essex ancestors. The RSPCA in the UK does not receive any public funds other than the tax exemptions that apply to all charities. Nothing dismayed her, and her horizons knew no bounds. This was London, seven years after the Battle of Waterloo- the London of coffee houses which had seen the birth of great adventures as different as the first stirrings of Lloyd's of London and the early beat of the guitar. The RSPCA is funded primarily by voluntary donations. If you're looking for pictures to add to your family tree album, then try one of the auctions, or there are several 'Buy It Now' shops offering postcards which have been touched up and improved - so if you're unsure about bidding, try these. The first piece of legislation in Britain on preventing cruelty to animals was the 'Act to Prevent the Cruel Treatment of Cattle, 1822'. So, out of this historic assembly was born the SPCA. SPCA organizations operate independently of each other and campaign for animal welfare, assist in the prevention of cruelty to animals cases, rehabilitation and finding homes for maltreated and unwanted animals that can be reestablished into new homes. Undaunted, the lady went to Mr Bergh whose work for animals was well known,- and told a white lie. In point of fact, out of every sixpence given at the last analysis, fivepence was devoted to children, one penny to animals. Many regarded it as little more than a joke- or did until Dick Martin decided on a dramatic way to bring it to the public notice. Back then we were the SPCA - Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. It is not difficult to imagine how the horses suffered with the constant stopping and starting, to say nothing of the frequent use of the whip. Search Essex parish registers on Ancestry, Help me find my ancestors - example search. © 2020 Michigan State University College of Law. Sure enough, the SPCA investigated the matter and brought the case before the court where it was contended successfully that the child was an animal. The magistrates were obviously bored, couldn't care less about the fate of a miserable donkey, and Martin suddenly realised that the case was about to be lost. Before the astounded magistrates and court officials, the donkey was led into the well of the courthouse, where its wounds could plainly be seen. The primary aim of the RSPCA is to campaign and promote the welfare of the animals. She then consulted her lawyer. She founded the Costermonger's Club, she endowed churches and schools, she ran a fund for sufferers in the Russo-Turkish War, she helped Irish fishermen, she helped Dyaks in Borneo. 'Well! Secretary Pro Tem in the absence of Mr Broome,' a delicate way of covering up Mr Broome's unavoidable absence from home. RSPCA stands for Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Within four days one of the committees was meeting again, and Mr. Broome was able to announce that the Rector of Marylebone had offered to preach his sermon in support of the cause and that he had received an anonymous donation of £50. The Objectives of the new RSPCA, founded in 1824, were to: Enforce the anti-cruelty legislation Seek amendment to the legislation Create and sustain an intelligent public opinion re … Mr. Broome was not a man to waste time. The RSPCA was founded in 1875. (The "Royal" was added later). Having previously relied on its in-house print room for production, the RSPCA wanted an external partner that could offer improved efficiencies, additional buying power, knowledge of up-to-date technologies, and above all, a significant reduction in cost. He never was repaid the remaining £70. Arthur Broome was a Devonshire man, educated at Balliol, an MA, who spent four years at Bromley- and about whom, ironically, little is known except the beautiful handwriting of his Minutes. Even so the Committee could only repay Mr Broome £10 towards the sum the Society owed him. The organisation also does international outreach work across Europe, Africa and Asia. In the meantime, the Secretary had managed to call in six men of the Bow Street patrol, who arrested seven cockfighters, though not before one inspector, James Piper, was so badly beaten up that he had to be taken to hospital where he died. Since then, RSPCA Member Societies have been established in every State and Territory, culminating in the formation of a national body, RSPCA Australia, in 1980. A Broome, Revd. Notice the limited number of animals which came under the act. Visit our Parish Registers of Essex page for more information. Back then we were the SPCA - Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The men present knew they were creating the world’s first animal welfare charity, but they couldn’t have imagined the size and shape that the charity would become today. Many countries applied directly to the RSPCA for help in starting up similar organisations, though in many cases the Society did not wait for other countries to ask. Benjamin Waugh, usually regarded as the founder of the NSPCC, said: 'Your Society, the RSPCA, has given birth to a kindred institution whose object is the protection of defenceless children. To her astonishment she received an incredible reply. Greece was over-run. Founded in 1809 at a meeting in a coffee house in Bold Street, Liverpool at 7.00pm on 25th October, this group of stalwarts formed a society "for the suppression of Wanton Cruelty to Brute Animals". Try our example search to help you discover if your ancestors are in the British Newspaper Archive.
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