Derbent took a special place in Peter’s the Great plans. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. There is a legend that says that Ibrahim I Derbendi sent Timur a gift: gold - 9 packs, silver - 9 packs and so on, slaves - 8 persons. The population of Derbent is about 121,000 (2015), the area - 69.63 sq. Derbent (in Persian “darband” means “narrow gates”) is a city in the Dagestan Republic located in the narrow pass between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus, the southernmost city in Russia. The Roman Empire was greatly interested in the town, it organized its first expedition in 290-281 B.C. Management for the World Heritage property is the responsibility of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation with the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Dagestan, which is considered the territorial authorized executive body. In these sources, the story includes Alexander praying for two mountains to move together to close off the unclean nations. In 1606, Derbent became part of Persia. De citadel, oude stad en de vestingswerken van Derbent maakten deel uit van de noordelijke linies van het Sassanidische Perzische Rijk, dat zich uitstrekte ten oosten en westen van de Kaspische Zee. Derbent, Russia - September 08, 2016: Gauptvahta military prison in Naryn-Kala fortress. The property that is inscribed as the Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent covers 37.658 ha and is surrounded by a 451.554-ha buffer zone. Wall in Naryn-Kala fortress and view of Derbent city. All rights reserved. Its defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power. The walls extend 500Â m into the Caspian Sea to protect the harbour and the mountain wall continues 40Â km west, over the mountains, defending the northern borders from warlike nomads by completely blocking the pass between the sea and the mountains. Derbent is renown for its citadel (âNaryn-Kalaâ or âDagh Baryâ in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. In 651, the Arabs conquered Derbent, but managed to finally assimilate it just in 733-734s. Museum of Carpets, Arts and Crafts located in the Armenian-Gregorian church (Rzayeva Street, 7). In the face of a $54.3 billion two-year deficit driven by the coronavirus pandemic, the $133.9 billion budget for the fiscal year beginning Wednesday will start to build that wall up again. Inside, you can see preserved baths, water tanks in case of siege, and the ruins of ancient buildings. Today, the Derbent Wall runs into territory currently flooded by the Caspian Sea and, according to a report by the 19th century British traveller Charles Edward Yate, so too is the âRed Snakeâ. The Derbent wall in Uzbekistan is marked on this map, and the Himalayan mountains are North of India and run into Pakistan, it is the dark raised Area on the map. National composition of Derbent population (2010): Lezgins (33.7%), Azerbaijanis (32.3%), Tabasarans (15.8%), Dargins (5.6%), Russians (3.7%), Aguls (3.2%), Armenians (1.2%), Jews (1.1%), Rutuls (0.8%), others (2.6%). The climate in Derbent is transitional from temperate to semi-dry subtropical. September 19, 2015, the 2000th anniversary of Derbent was celebrated. Fortifications combined with the medieval buildings of the old part of the city, the so-called Magalims, form a unique cultural landscape. Criterion (iii): The site of the ancient city of Derbent has been crucial for the control of the north-south passage on the west side of the Caspian Sea since the 1st millennium BCE. La ciudadela, la ciudad vieja y la fortaleza de Derbent formaban parte del dispositivo de defensa de la frontera septentrional del imperio persa de los sasÃ¡nidas, que se extendÃa por el este y el oeste del Mar Caspio. And when Timur asked: “Why 9 packs of everything, but just 8 slaves?” Ibrahim I Derbendi answered: “the ninth slave is me”. From 1846, it became part of Dagestan region. It experienced stormy historical events, attacks and destruction, decline and prosperity. Between the parallel defence walls, the city was built with the commercial sector close to the waterfront and the residential buildings near the citadel. This answer pleased Timur so much that he didn’t destroy Derbent, but even ordered his workers to rebuilt the destroyed walls instead. Its position between the mountains and the sea illustrates the importance of its original defensive setting. ÐÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð´ ÐÐµÑÐ±ÐµÐ½Ñ ÑÐ»Ð¾Ð¶Ð¸Ð»ÑÑ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ ÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð´Ð²ÑÑ ÑÑÐµÐ½ Ð¸ ÑÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸Ð» Ð´Ð¾ Ð½Ð°ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ ÑÐ²Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ²ÐµÐºÐ¾Ð²ÑÐ¹ Ñ Ð°ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐµÑ. It is affected by the Caspian Sea. ask a question about Derbent city to our Expert, contact us by email, if you have any proposals. Within the historic town, many buildings survive including courtyard houses, public buildings, mosques, baths, madrasahs, and the remains of a caravanserai. Ze zijn in stand gehouden tijdens de opeenvolgende regeringen tot de Russische bezetting in de 19e eeuw. It was in the position to control the traffic between Europe and the Middle East, and shield the prospering agricultural peoples of the Middle East from devastating raids of nomadic â¦ In the early 18th century, when there was a threat of Iran and Turkish invasion in the Caspian region, Peter I committed his famous Persian (Caspian) expedition (1722-1723). Durin the 5t an 6t centuries Derbent becomes an important centre for spreadin the Christian faith in the Caucasus an aw. Derbent supported tight trade ties with a lot of regions and cities in Near and Middle East, Eastern Europe - medieval authors and a lot of archaeological finds witness this fact. Museum of Culture and Life of Ancient Derbent (Rzayeva Street, 7). The lighthouse is equipped with a lamp and modern optics whereby a signal can be viewed at a distance of 18 nautical miles. WebGL must be enable. Before the mosque, there is a madrassas of the 15th century. It is the only preserved monument of ancient Persian fortification architecture. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentioned “Derbentsky pass” in the 5th century B.C. In addition, the walls are at risk by the growth of vegetation. Its current historic layout, street patterns, and building use are supported by historical and archaeological evidence, such as artefacts, ancient writings, old maps and plans. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. These buildings are owned by the state and protected under RSFSR Supreme Soviet Decree of 27.12.1991. In 66-65 B.C., military expeditions to the Caucasus headed by Lucullus and Pompeus took place, one of their objectives was to conquer Derbent. Nine of the original 14 gates survive. Naryn-Kala - an ancient fortress towering over Derbent. Derbent is one of the most ancient “live” cities in the world. North West | Central | Volga | South | North Caucasus | Ural | Siberia | Far East. The average temperature in January is +3.1 degrees Celsius, in July - +24.7 degrees C. Derbent is located on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, not far from the mouth of the Samur River, where the Caucasian mountains come closest to the Caspian Sea and leave just a narrow, 3 km wide, line of lowland. The museum-reserve also takes care of the conservation of its historical and cultural heritage, regularly monitors the technical condition of the monuments and the whole territory, and provides access to the cultural interests and their participation in cultural life. Today, this UNESCO site is the highlight of any visit to Derbent. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbentâs harbor. 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Two walls were constructed 300 to 400Â m apart, extending approximately 3.6Â km from the Caspian Sea up to the citadel situated on the mountain. During the 6th century, wall construction, for both the city walls and citadel, was characterized by dry armor-clad brickwork (poke and spoons) made of big rectangular blocks with ragged stone on lime mortar in its internal backfilling. Derbent has largely maintained its original form and provides impressive evidence of the cityâs greatness and power in different historic periods over 15 centuries â Arab, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid and Safavid periods until the 19th century when it became part of the Russian Empire. In 1813, Derbent was joined to Russia. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. Thanks for being a regular reader! From the 5th century, the town rapidly grew and fortifications were constructed in order to preâ¦ Medieval Derbent was the largest port on the Caspian Sea, an important center of transit trade between East and West, North and South. Derbentâs status as a World Heritage property and a monument of federal importance under State protection allows the conservation of all architectural objects and the archaeological and cultural layers that reflect cityâs evolution. Wilhelmus de Rubruquis in describing the walls of Derbent (1254) relates that the whole country was largely inhabited by Jews (G. de Roubrouck, "Récit de Son Voyage," p. 280, Paris, 1877). The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. The importance of Derbentsky pass was high, it was located in one of the most strategically important and topographically convenient points of the famous Caspian way which connected the Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Criterion (iv): The ancient city of Derbent and its defence structures are the most significant section of the strategic defence systems designed and built in the Sasanian Empire along their northern limes, and maintained during the successive governments until the Russian occupation in the 19th century. Derbent. At this time, Dzhuma mosque was constructed. Isaiah 9:6,7 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counseller, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peaceâ¦ The city has a cognac plant producing famous Derbent cognacs, and a sparkling wine plant - the only plant in Russia producing sparkling wine in souvenir and even crystal bottles. Publications World Heritage Review Series Resource Manuals World Heritage wall map More publications ... Funding World Heritage Fund International Assistance. The old town of Derbent was built between these two walls. Dagestan. The most famous is the Wall of Derbent in modern Dagestan (Russia). In 488-531, stone walls were constructed. Seventy-three defence towers were constructed, 46 of which were in the north wall. United Nations, Dagestan, Eastern Caucasus, Western coast of Caspian Sea. It was the beginning of scientific research of Derbent. The first settlements were founded there in the early Bronze Age, at the end of 4,000 B.C. The city's protected fortifications were built in the 5th century by the Sasanian Empire, and over the centuries the city has been controlled by Persian, Arabic, Mongol, and Timurid governments. The site stands on the debris of the northern walls of Derbentâs fortress. Copyright © 2007 – 2020 russiatrek.org. Derbent en haar verdedigingswerken vormden het belangrijkste deel van de strategische defensiesystemen van het Sassanidische rijk. Stone, the primary building material for the walls and historic buildings, is visible throughout the site. The ancient city of Derbent and its defence structures are the most significant section of the strategic defence systems designed and built in the Sasanian Empire along their northern limes, and maintained during the successive governments until the Russian occupation in the 19th century. De oude stad werd tussen deze twee verdedigingsmuren gebouwd en heeft een deel van haar middeleeuwse structuur behouden. These defense lines are known from tradition and archaeological evidence. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. The Roman Walls which once surrounded Córdoba, Spain, were built after the Romans captured the city in 206 BC, making it part of the Roman Republic. Derbent is located in Russiaâs Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. According to the epitaph, the stela was erected on the tomb of Shah Vali b. Shaqil who was assigned the title of Å¡ahÄ«d al-saâÄ«d (âhappy martyrâ). Within the citadel, the ruins and archaeological remains of a number of buildings are found, including the Khanâs Palace, a bath, several underground water tanks, a 5th-century Christian church, and an 8th-century mosque, one of the earliest in the former Soviet Union. ÐÐ½ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð°Ð» Ð±ÑÑÑ Ð²Ð°Ð¶Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð² ÑÑÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐ¾Ð¼ Ð²Ð¿Ð»Ð¾ÑÑ Ð´Ð¾ XIX Ð². The ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentioned âDerbentsky passâ in the 5th century B.C. Derbent Historical-Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve has the responsibility for the management of the buildings within the property that have been identified as monuments of historical and cultural heritage. In 1840s and later, it experienced rapid economic growth. Derbent is renown for its citadel (âNaryn-Kalaâ or âDagh Baryâ in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. Archaeological research is ongoing for non-excavated parts that conserve the authentic remains of the original buildings. The World Heritage property âThe Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbentâ includes all necessary attributes demonstrating its Outstanding Universal Value, which are located inside the protected boundaries of its territory. Federal Districts: The site of the ancient city of Derbent has been crucial for the control of the north-south passage on the west side of the Caspian Sea since the 1st millennium BCE. The walls of Sassanid Fortress Naryn-Kala in Derbent city, Republic of Dagestan Derbent. In the early Middle Ages, struggle for the Caucasus was continued by Byzantine and Iraq. It is not permitted to go in as it is in working order. Peter I paid his attention at its historical monuments. The 20m walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.Kevin Alan Brook. Evidence was found of a fortified settlement in the region of the citadel during the 3rd century BCE and 4th century CE, which was confirmed by historical documents; Greek-Roman authors knew this settlement by the name of Albanian gate and meanwhile the ancient Armenian authors called it the Chol/Chor. Its destruction began after the Russian conquest, when the growing lower part of the city of the European type, not fitting â¦ In 1387, Timur conquered Azerbajan and Derbent shah Ibrahim I Derbendi was ready to subordinate to him. The 7th century fortress and the city walls once provided a bulwark against invaders from the north. Imagine if you would, using a Wall of Force to cross a relatively wide chasm, then using illusion magic to make it look like there is a bridge crossing said chasm where the wall is, purposely lose concentration while the horde of whatever is half way across the chasm, lots of falling ensues. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. Moreover, the cityâs historic layout has been preserved with the relationship of the citadel, remaining north wall, and winding street pattern in the medieval town which continues to have a residential population. Derbentâs splendid twin stone walls stretching from the mountains to the sea was built during this period. The date on the grave refers to the period of the military actions at the walls of Derbent, particularly to the siege of the city by the troops of Shah Ismail â¦ Autumn is usually long and warm; spring comes with a delay; winter is mild, the coldest month is February; summer is long and hot. Derbent is situated on the western shores of the Caspian Sea, in present-day Dagestan. Recent conservation and partial restoration of architectural monuments have used traditional building techniques, materials and substances that correspond to the appropriate historical period. In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall - a double wall built in the Sassanid times that completely closed the Caspian pass and went far into the sea forming a port. Archaeological excavations since the late 1970s have confirmed Derbentâs nearly 2,000 years of continuous history as urban settlement, the oldest in Russia and one of the most ancient in the region.
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