2.4 Employee Performance: Employees who are the most efficient are like to be they are motivate to perform medina (2002) this relationship mean that rewards and employee performance is expecting theory which means that employee are most to be motivated performance is more performance to receive the rewards and bonus. 299-323. 2.3 Employee-related factors and employee performance Even though there are many employee-related factors that have been examined in the literature regarding their impact on EP such as turnover, absenteeism (Hancock et al., 2013), this study focuses on proactivity, adaptability, intrinsic motivation, skill flexibility, commitment and skill level. 3, pp. However, if KPIs are aligned with respective Reporting Managers and those are further in sync with the organizational goals, ensuring business continuity and productivity becomes seamless. 79-92. He ensures that his staff comply with their scheduled breaks and lunchtimes. Newer ways of training and interactions will keep employees engaged and encourage them to deliver their best. 1011-1017. (2006), âIndividual ADAPTability (I-ADAPT) theory: conceptualizing the antecedents, consequences, and measurement of individual differences in adaptabilityâ, in Burke, S., Pierce, L. and Salas, E. (Eds), Understanding Adaptability: A Prerequisite for Effective Performance within Complex Environments, Elsevier, Oxford, pp. frequent absenteeism, low motivation) results in a decrease in employeesâ levels of skill flexibility and adaptability. 23 No. In other words, they believe that they have a sufficiently flexible skill base that can be adapted according to specific job needs. 171-193. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2018-0012, Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited. Latham and Pinder (2005) report that employeesâ motivation is affected by their jobâs characteristics, such as job design, tasks and working environment. 1, pp. 633-662. In the next stage of this pretesting process, a number of modifications were made to ensure that the original text was clearly interpreted in the target language (Greek). The performance of the organization can be measured by the revenue it is earning and the profits that it is enjoying. Management support and intrinsic motivation have a weaker but still significant direct impact on EP (0.15***/Î1 and 0.13**/Î21, respectively). • Work-oriented and socialization-oriented social media are complementary resources. His performance is always reliable and he follows his work schedule well. (2002) state that if employees adapt easily to a new workplace (and/or new job requirements and needs), as well as to irregular situations, there may be a positive effect on their performances. 39 No. 5, pp. (2015), âWould better earning, work environment, and promotion opportunities increase employee performance? 15 No. Regarding job-related factors a direct positive relationship (0.19***/H15a) between job autonomy and the level of proactivity is evidenced. This assessment establishes a strong foothold to plan goals and set targets and thus should be done on a periodic basis. Ployhart, R.E. (2008), Human Resource Management, Thomson/South Western, Mason, OH. Delaney, J.T. Many researchers (Pulakos, 2004; Armstrong, 2012) claim that management support is an important condition for EP improvement. This support should be given to their employees at a personal level as well as by improving both organizational climate and job environment in order to directly and indirectly affect their job performance levels. Table V summarizes the total, direct and indirect effects between the factors incorporated into the research model. Performance reviews are an essential tool for monitoring and improving employee progress and giving them support and guidance. solving difficult job situations in the appropriate ways). Kozlowski et al. Wright and Snell (1998, pp. 2, pp. Concerning job environment, Kopelman et al. 24 No. 764-765) define employeesâ skill flexibility as âthe number of possible alternative ways, through which employees can apply their skills in their jobâ and âhow employees with different skills can be repositioned to the proper places in a fast way.â Bhattacharya et al. 36 No. Kill Your Performance Ratings Reinventing Performance Papalexandris, N. and Bourantas, D. (2003), Human Resource Management, Benos Publishing, Athens. Koys, D. and De Cotiis, T. (1991), âInductive measures of organizational climateâ, Human Relations, Vol. 345-356. Figure 1 demonstrates the proposed research model, where the relations between the three core constructs (firm/environment-related factors, job-related factors and employee-related factors) and EP appear. (2010), âEnvironmental dynamism, human resource flexibility, and firm performance: analysis of a multi-level causal modelâ, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. Their findings are fully supported by the results since direct relationships between management support and job environment (0.28***/H9a) as well as between management support and organizational climate (0.44***) are found. 2 Employees' behaviour in relation to organisational performance can manifest itself in three different ways. To that end, we have adopted these factors because there are strong evidences in the literature supporting that these factors are related with the other factors incorporated in the proposed model. 4, pp. 18 No. job satisfaction and its relationship with job performance may be included). The impact this culture on employeesâ performance is found to be weak; however, managers should have in mind that investing in a well-organized training culture, which is focused on employee needs, increased employee adaptability level to emerging job requirements and challenges, thus affecting their job performance. This dislike is understandable given that the process of performance appraisal—as traditionally practiced—is fundamentally flawed. and Rainer, R.K. (1996), âA general measure of user computing satisfactionâ, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. (a, b, c): Firm/environment-related factors are related to job-related factors. Further, the indirect relationship between intrinsic motivation and management support (0.24***) may indicate that employeesâ personal satisfaction, derived from their job performances, increases when they know that they have their supervisorsâ support. Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B. and Wright, P. (2006), Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage, McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. 1538-1549. Employee Performance Survey The performance of each employee should be frequently discussed (at the least in regular performance reviews and 1 on 1 meetings). 485-516. The above finding may justify the existence of its indirect relations with proactivity (0.23***), adaptability (0.31***), intrinsic motivation (0.23***) and EP (0.24***). Chatman, J.A., Caldwell, D.F., OâReilly, C.A. Rynes et al. Accurate alignment Key Performance Indicators. Two structured questionnaires were designed and used for collecting the necessary data. Normally, employee performance, as a key performance index, is influenced by different aspects within organizations. 3 No. Approaching the aforementioned findings from a managerial perspective it can be said that managers should pay attention to job environment since it can significantly impact the performance of their employees as Nguyen et al. Employee performance is a key factor that contributes directly to the performance of the company. Managers also should consider that when operating in such collaborative organizational climate, their level of support affects initially the formulation of firmâs organizational climate, employeesâ immediate job environment and (directly) employeesâ performance. (2006, p. 162) define job autonomy as the extent to which âthe job allows the employee to make decisions about how to perform his work.â They also state that job autonomy is positively associated with EP. During this process, researchers had face-to-face discussions with several employees, HR managers and academics in order to ensure that the questionnaires had no serious format or content problems. Table II presents a brief profile of the research participants (managers and employees). and Huselid, M.A. 3-34. 7, pp. The result of these effects is that employees do not have the willingness to put in extra effort to improve their proactivity level (i.e. fair treatment, participation in decision making) may increase their levels of emotional commitment to the firm and, in turn, their performances may also improve. Fawcett, S.E., Brau, J.C., Rhoads, G.K., Whitlark, D. and Fawcett, A.M. (2008), âSpirituality and organizational culture: cultivating the ABCs of an inspiring workplaceâ, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. (2010), âTaking stock: integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviorsâ, Journal of Management, Vol. Further, Fawcett et al. In turn, employees will be more confident that their knowledge, skills and behaviors significantly contribute to the achievement of higher job performance, something that in the long run have a positive impact on their overall job performance. For any profit unit to achieve desired goals, it is extremely important to align all resources, especially Human Resource, in the right direction. 621-634. the sample is heterogeneous). (2005) suggest that a firm can improve employeesâ skill flexibility through various processes, such as job rotation and cross-functional teams. 949-969. The above conclusion is consistent with the findings of Crant (2000) and Parker et al. Furthermore, employees often avoid asking their supervisors and peers questions about their performance, but they pay attention to their supervisorsâ behavior toward them to understand whether this is related to (is triggered by) their job-related performance. As a high-ranking company employee, you might be tasked with evaluating employee performance. Further, Motowildo and Schmit (1999, p. 56) indicate that when firmsâ external environments are dynamic, then it is difficult for them to predetermine their employeesâ efficiency levels. It is absolutely inspiring to see how businesses worldwide are dealing with the current crisis. Ketkar, S. and Sett, P.K. (2007) point that organizationâs culture affects employeeâs behavior, while Roos and Van Eeden (2008) claim that it is related with the level of employeesâ motivation. and Borman, W.C. (2002), âPredicting adaptive performance: further tests of a model of adaptabilityâ, Human Performance, Vol. Nowadays, the phenomenon of increased competition between firms and their need to respond effectively to rapidly changing operational conditions, as well as to personnel requirements, has escalated the necessity to identify those factors that affect employee performance (EP). Bush, J.B. and Frohman, A.L. Therefore, job environment should be improving continuously in terms of employee belonging and affirmation. Figure 3 demonstrates the overall second-level structural model, along with the extracted path coefficients and adjusted R2 scores. how to create innovative ideas or prevent problematic job situations) improve their levels of proactivity. To summarise, I have always believed that employees are not mere resources but assets that take the organization forward. 39 No. Moreover, Delaney and Huselid (1996) suggest that in order for firm performance to be improved through increased EP, firms should strengthen employee motivation. 31 No. and Roberts, J.E. How to maintain employee performance during COVID-19 The past few months have urged businesses and HR leaders across the globe to revisit their strategies for ensuring business continuity and employee satisfaction. Finally, employees believe that their job performance levels are high, and they use their working time in the most efficient and effective ways. As can been noticed, all the hypotheses referring to the relationships between the constructs are accepted. An employee can receive feedback regularly from their manager and other peers and also give feedback to them. 23 No. Bapna, R., Langer, N., Mehra, A., Gopal, R. and Gupta, A. In other words, the degree of supervisorsâ support for employeesâ actions is determined by top managementâs policies and directions. Nevertheless, even the small impact of environmental dynamism on training implies that firms with dynamic internal environments achieve better results from training processes. ), Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research, Vol. Thompson (2005) states that proactive employees perform more efficiently than those who have low proactivity. Table IV presents the overall model fit results using the SEM approach. and Black, W.C. (1992), Multivariate Data Analysis, With Readings, Maxwell Macmillan International, New York, NY. The revenue that each employee brings in on a monthly basis reflects on that individual’s overall performance. In the meantime, researchers had contacted a number of senior HR executives/managers from 350 firms (in various economic sectors) in order to determine their willingness both to participate in this research and to allow the participation of five of their employees. The roles of most business & support functions have diversified in during the lockdown. As far as the relationships between the employee-related factors are concerned, a strong positive relation (0.30***) between proactivity and adaptability is suggested. Ployhart and Bliese (2006) report that employeesâ adaptability is associated with their skill levels meaning that if employeesâ skills can adapt to different jobs (tasks/requirements/duties/activities), then employees may adapt quickly to new job positions or new job requirements (in their existing job positions). 32 No. Employee Performance Performance has diverse insights from various experts, but still has common ground. Narcisse and Harcourt (2008, p. 1152) state that employeeâs âperformance appraisal encroaches upon âone of the most emotionally charged activities in business lifeâ â the assessment of a manâs contribution and ability.â Boxall and Purcell (2011) indicate that the implementation of a well-defined process for evaluating EP plays a crucial role on a firmâs smooth running. (2002), âA study of the effectiveness of training proactive thinkingâ, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. Overall, employees state that they are not cut off from their workplaces and that they are a valuable and unique component of their firms, which, in conjunction with their own special abilities and peer collaboration, can contribute toward achieving the firmâs goals. 1, pp. However, they also take actions to prevent the recurrence of job-related problems in order not to lose later time for solving them. and Nguyen, L.D. Not surprisingly, firms do not believe that the frequent evaluation of employeesâ skills has a strong impact on EP. Interested in daily dose of short & crisp insights from the world of work? Ketkar and Sett (2010) report that environmental dynamism affects firm performance. In other words, in a dynamic environment, the job itself and its performance acquire unique characteristics. It must be pointed here that the managerâs presence was compulsory (in the same room), while employees were replying to questionnaire. Hancock, J.I., Allen, D.G., Bosco, F.A., McDaniel, K.M. (2006) have found that organizational climate influences employeesâ attitudes and behaviors and hence their performance levels, while Chatman et al. This negative impact on organizational climate and job environment leads to a series of negative impacts on the other factors incorporated into the proposed model. They tend to take suggestions for performance improvement personally and negatively. Grant, A.M. and Parker, S.K. (2011), Strategy and Human Resource Management, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. The results indicate that job environment and management support have the strongest impacts (direct and indirect) on job performance, while adaptability and intrinsic motivation directly affect job performance. and Lewis, M.A. 59 No. The five indices used to assess construct validity were Ï2/degree of freedom (Ï2/df), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), comparative fit index (CFI), TuckerâLewis index (TLI) and root mean square residual (RMR). 18-35. By contrast, if a firmâs internal environment is diachronically static, then the willingness and desire of employees to update their knowledge and skills is low, since even if they update them, they will not be utilized by the firm. Regular communication will educate them about the precautions that they have to take while working from home, on field and in office and also give them clarity with regards to their tasks.Â. 2, pp. A potential limitation of this research is that it is not focused only on one business sector (i.e. 28, pp. 14 No. To address this, some organizations have arranged for motivational sessions with life coaches as well as internal sessions to help them cope with the crisis in a better way. Keeping assets motivated during these challenging times should be the utmost priority and the same will result in uninterrupted business continuity for the clients. If the organizational climate âdevaluesâ a firmâs employees, then employees are likely to see obstacles in their behavior, forcing them to leave the company (Mathis and Jackson, 2011). 6, pp. Somers, M.J. and Birnbaum, D. (1998), âWork-related commitment and job performance: Itâs also the nature of the performance that countsâ, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. However, this as a result of th e state of employee performance in such universities is at … 389-416. Research structural model (first-level analysis), Research structural model (second-level analysis), Notes: Sample, n=392. Mathis and Jackson (2011) and Armstrong (2012) argue that firm-related factors from firmâs internal and external environment, such as management support, training culture, organizational climate and environmental dynamism are related to: job-related factors, such as communication, autonomy and environment; employee-related factors, such as intrinsic motivation, proactivity, adaptability, skill flexibility, commitment and skill level; and EP. As in the case scenario, of the quality of the tuning elements, several factors could play a part in contributing to A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the constructs included in the proposed research model. 3, pp. Overall, the final model can explain 42 percent of the variance in âEP.â. Wright, P.M. and Snell, S.A. (1998), âToward a unifying framework for exploring fit and flexibility in strategic human resource managementâ, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 250-277. Copyright 2020 People Matters Media Pvt. Performance can be traced back to the behaviour of people on the shop floor. (2006) found that job autonomy is also positively related to commitment and proactivity. In other words, firms do not consider their employees as âautomatonsâ that produce their products and services, but as individuals who need guidance and assistance to carry out their job activities efficiently. and Francesco, A.M. (2003), âThe relationship between components of commitment and employee performance in Chinaâ, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. (2000), âProactive behaviour in organizationsâ, Journal of Management, Vol. Employees perceive that they have a satisfactory level of job autonomy, stating that their firms give them the opportunity to manage various job characteristics (such as their daily workloads and work activities) in a way that their job performance is not negatively affected. They argue that this occurs because employees with a high degree of normative commitment are âtrappedâ in no-choice situations, such as remaining in the firm even if they do not want to. Finally, it is argued that employee commitment, which consists of the three components (affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment) is also related to EP. 89 No. 1, pp. 793-807. (1997), âHandbook of organizational measurementâ, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. taking the initiative or preventing problems during their job execution) and adaptability (e.g. According to Hair et al. Participating firms can be categorized as small- and medium-sized firms (56 percent have fewer than 50 employees), while most of them belong to the manufacturing sector (37.7 percent). Dermol, V. and Cater, T. (2013), âThe influence of training and training transfer factors on organizational learning and performanceâ, Personnel Review, Vol. (Eds), Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp. Figure 2 presents the first-level structural model, along with the extracted path coefficients and adjusted R2 scores. Communication is the key and has been proven absolutely true in these difficult times. The term “employee performance” signifies individual’s work achievement after exerting required effort on the job which is associated through getting a meaningful work, engaged profile, and compassionate colleagues/employers; Mathis, R.L. In other words, if employees perform in a firm that often renews its equipment and production processes and looks for ways to improve its competitive position, then training plays a vital role in improving employeesâ knowledge and skills, thus making it easier for a firm to achieve its targets. 4, pp. (2005), âWork motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first centuryâ, The Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. (2011) found that training culture is related to job autonomy and Winterton (2008) report that firmsâ training policy is closely related to the improvement of their employeesâ job-related skills and flexibility (employee-related factors). Lepak, D., Liao, H., Chung, Y. and Harden, E. (2006), âA conceptual review of human resource management systems in strategic human resource management researchâ, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. (2002) and Thoresen et al. This practice will trigger a healthy organizational climate where managers, employees and co-workers will collaborate efficiently, be more motivated and increase their performance. Satisfaction leads to improved EP this dedication, many organizations chose unusual.. Way that contributes to ( the goals of ) the organisation extra-role efforts to initiate workplace,... Digital infrastructure is necessary to ensure cohesiveness is through video conferences with the changing business landscape to be considerate their. Believe that they have a sufficiently flexible skill base that can lead to from! Education have become an integral part of any organization to timely review performance. The clients played a crucial role in this research is that it is not focused on. 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