1871-8. BibliographyEllicott, Charles John. It must be observed that the Jews frequently used their debtors with great severity, (see Nehemiah 5:5,) taking forcible possession of their lands and vineyards, and bringing their children into bondage. 2 Samuel 1:1-16 God Doesn't Need Help 2 Samuel 2:1-11 Waiting for God's Time 2 Samuel 3:1,7-18 Now Then Do It 2 Samuel 5:1-10 The King Gives Victory 2 Samuel 7:1-13 When God Says No 2 Samuel 11:1 … (See Excursus I. at the end of this Book.). At the period of which the text speaks, David was leading the life of an outcast and an outlaw. In the Divine record sad scenes (see 2 Kings 4:1-7), exemplifying this pitiless spirit, are casually related, but they are so woven into the mosaic of the history, as to show us they were, alas! Then go to Christ and fill up the hollowness of your soul with Him. California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. . BibliographyJamieson, Robert, D.D. (1-2) Thanksgiving and praise. To complete the picture of this First Book of Samuel, we must unite in one the scattered notices of this same period which occur in the Second Book of Samuel and in the Books of Kings and Chronicles. 1857. The cave of Adullam was a refuge for debtors, and so is the Church of Christ. Herein David became a type of Christ, the Captain of our salvation, who cried, "Come unto me, all ye that are weary," and who are sensible that ye have Suffered more under Satan’s tyranny, than these had under Saul’s: and yet in his time, as afterwards in Tiberius’s, there was crimen ex silentio, ex voce, (a) danger either to speak, or to hold one’s peace, to have done anything, or nothing. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-samuel-22.html. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". 22. And every one that was in debt — אשׁר לו נשׁא asher lo noshee, the man that had a creditor. . (Haydock). 1909-1922. ; distressed and uneasy in their minds, being pinched with want, or pressed with sore afflictions, which made them very disconsolate: these. Every one that was discontented — Hebrew, מר נפשׁ mar nephesh, the man bitter of soul, aggrieved in his mind, made uneasy and discontented, “probably,” says Dr. Dodd, “with Saul’s tyrannical government, and his implacable persecution of David, who, by this time, must have been well known to have been the intended successor of Saul.” It does not appear, from this description, that these were men of abandoned characters and profligate principles, as some have thought, who joined themselves to David purposely to cheat their creditors, and for the sake of the plunder they were in hopes of getting under him. In 1 Samuel 15:22 Samuel said that it is better to obey God than to *sacrifice to him. “ The Evangelical Exegetical Commentary is a brand new, 44-volume commentary series which incorporates the latest critical biblical scholarship and is written from a distinctly evangelical perspective. But the original words by no means convey any such meaning as this. BibliographyTorrey, R. A. 1999. every one that was in distress — (See on Judges 11:3). Compare Judges 18:25, "angry": i.e. 1. These beneficent regulations of the great lawgiver had, under the capricious, faulty rule of King Saul, of course fallen into abeyance, and a terrible amount of misery, no doubt, was the consequence. (2) Every one that was in distress.—Ewald writes on this statement:—“The situation of the country, which was becoming more and more melancholy under Saul, . drove men to seek a leader from whom they might hope for better things for the future . And every one that was in distress - debt - discontented - It is very possible that these several disaffected and exceptionable characters might at first have supposed that David, unjustly persecuted, would be glad to avail himself of their assistance that he might revenge himself upon Saul, and so they in the mean time might profit by plunder, etc. When his brothers and the rest of his family heard about it, they came down to him there. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-samuel-22.html. And he became a captain over them.—It was evidently no undisciplined band, these outlaws of Adullam and the hold of Moab, of Hareth and Keilah, of Ziph and Engedi. 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or … a 2 He was joined by all those in difficulties or in debt, or embittered, * and became their leader. BibliographyBarnes, Albert. Not such ruffians and rakehells as Abimelech, [ 9:4] and of later time Mohammed, that grand impostor, got together to spoil and do mischief; but these came to David upon a better principle, and for a better purpose, viz., for his and their own just and necessary defence: and for their carriage, see what a testimony Nabal’s servants gave them, though that brute their master had basely reviled them. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-samuel-22.html. 1 Samuel chapter 22 summary starts out with David leaving the presence of the king of Gath and dwells in a cave, from whence he sent word to his family where he was and they came to … A catalogue of the bravest is given in 2 Samuel 23:8-39; 1 Chronicles 11:10-47. When his brothers and his father's household heard about it, they went down to him there. Ver. . The last thing we note about the miserable men who came for refuge to David is that they were taught by him to live good lives. Men. 1905-1909. And though their persons were with David, yet their lands and goods were liable to their creditors. They did not all flock to his standard at once. BibliographyClarke, Adam. David did not send away these refugees, many of them distinguished and prominent Israelites, but organised them into a military force. Nor would they have continued with him so long, and abode with him in dreary forests, destitute of most of the conveniences and comforts of life; or have followed him whithersoever he was disposed to lead them. "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". And every one that was in distress.] https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-samuel-22.html. The insertion of this Psalm, which is not in the Book of Psalms, was probably suggested by … BibliographyHawker, Robert, D.D. 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 1 Kings 2 Kings 31 1-4 5-10 11-20 21-24 1-11 12-22 1-17 18-25 1Chr 10 1 Chr 11-19 1 Chr 20-29 2 Chronicles 1-9 2 Chronicles 10-20 2 Chronicles 21-36 Legend: B.C. 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. They are never found plundering or murdering; on the contrary, they always appear under good discipline, and are only employed in services of a beneficent nature, and in defense of their country. BibliographyJamieson, Robert, D.D. thou chiefest among ten thousand; now art thou to me the altogether lovely, and the Captain of my salvation. 1 Samuel 22:2 New International Version (NIV) 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. See de Jure B. He foresaw that while commanding such a company as this, he might, without injuring his king and former benefactor, be of the very greatest use to the people, and protect the southern frontiers of the kingdom—sadly exposed in these later years of King Saul—from the plundering incursions of the neighbouring nomadic tribes. 1 Samuel 22 New International Version (NIV) David at Adullam and Mizpah 22 David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. Are you dissatisfied? This is not the temper or behaviour of men of profligate principles. They wanted to be like other nations. . thou dearest Lord! Thus all David's people were men of bitter spirit, extremely distressed and grieved for the loss of their wives and children, chap. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/1-samuel-22.html. Bill T. Arnold — 1 & 2 Samuel (NIV Application Commentary, 2003). About four hundred men were with him. It is evident from the respect which he inculcated upon his followers for the rights of property and for the person of Saul, that he meditated neither treason against the king nor rebellion against his government. David maintained the strictest discipline, and withheld his men from making any disturbance, always manifesting the greatest respect for the person of the king. Let Eli's example excite Finding the new version too difficult to understand? He became a captain over them; he did not justify nor maintain any injustice or wickedness, which some of them possibly might be guilty of; but, on the contrary, he instructed and obliged them to the practice of all justice and honesty; as appears from 1 Samuel 25:15; and he only used them for his just defence. They might be, and probably were, poor debtors, whom their creditors were obliged to spare and favour, Exodus 22:25. Joseph Benson's Commentary. 1 Samuel 22:2. Probably poor debtors, whom their creditors were obliged to spare, Exodus 22:25. So useful and helpful to their neighbours did these soldiers become, that the servants of Nabal could not help acknowledging as much. Copyright © 2020, Bible Study Tools. When his brothers and his father’s household heard about it, they went down to him there. 7 parag. The several statements of the refugees who took shelter in David’s armed camp, of course go over a considerable time. gathered themselves unto him; to help him, or rather to be helped by him; hoping in time things would take a favourable turn with him, and he should be advanced to the throne, and so their circumstances would be mended thereby: and he became a captain over them; they enlisted themselves in his service, and he took the command of them; he might not know the circumstances of those in debt, nor of any of them thoroughly, nor their views in joining him; however he meant not to shelter them from paying their just debts if able, nor to encourage them in disloyalty to their king, only to make use of them for his own preservation for the present. (2) And everyone that was in distress, and everyone that was in debt, and everyone that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men. In our own time the same spirit, as is too well known, is still abroad, and constitutes the bitterest reproach which the many enemies of the strange, deathless race can promulgate against a people evidently walled in by a Divine protection and a changeless eternal love. New International Version (NIV) 14 But thanks be to God, who always leads us in His triumph in Christ, and manifests through us the sweet aroma of the knowledge of Him in every place (2 Corinthians 2:14, emphasis mine). Copyright StatementThese files are public domain. About four hundred men — A band of outlaws, who, however, under David’s wise management, became a band of mighty heroes. But David did not take these men into his service, till by information from Jonathan, and by many other certain proofs, it evidently appeared that his life was in imminent danger. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-samuel-22.html. Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:20-23 (Read 1 Samuel 22:20-23) David greatly lamented the calamity. The *Israelites wanted a king to lead them. And every one that was discontented.] This is the truth which is contained in the common saying, that when people become disappointed with the world, it is the last resource to turn saint. "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". 1. The phrase here denotes those who were exasperated by Saul‘s tyranny. All rights reserved. Debt - Probably poor debtors, whom the creditors were obliged to spare, Exodus 22:25. Every one that was in distress — אישׁ מצוק, ish matsok, the man straitened or oppressed. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". David, being driven from Achish, returns into the land of Israel to be hunted by Saul. Leviticus 25:39. "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". Every one that was in distress, through want, or oppression, or otherwise. "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". 2 Samuel 22 is one of the final chapters of the Books of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible (or the 22nd chapter of the "Second Book of Samuel" in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible). Every one that was in debt. (Calmet) --- The soldiers of Jephte were of the same description as these of David, Judges xi. BibliographyBenson, Joseph. 2 Samuel 22:1 "And David spake unto the LORD the words of this song in the day [that] the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul:" The linguistic features of the psalm attest to its antiquity. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-samuel-22.html. Go to. David (says he), who was very observant of the law, had about him at first four hundred armed persons, and afterwards a somewhat greater number. (Compare 1 Samuel 30:6; 2 Samuel 17:8.) 1 Samuel 30:6.; and their conduct shews them to have been of a very contrary character from desperadoes and banditti: for we read nothing of their plundering and murdering; on the contrary, we find them always kept in good discipline and order, frequently employed in services of a very beneficent nature, ready to do every friendly office, and often employed in defence of their country against the enemies of it. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/1-samuel-22.html. The judgment that Grotius passes upon David, when the company gathered to him at Adullam, deserves to be regarded. 1828. 2 Samuel 22: 1 – 51 Save the humble – oppose the proud 22 Then David spoke to the LORD the words of this song, on the day when the LORD had delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. Copyright StatementThese files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed. When his brothers and his father’s household heard about it, they went down to him there. "ish. His title to the crown was incontestable, so that he might justly make war, particularly in his own defence, and receive those who flocked to him to screen themselves from the persecution of Saul, and from their debtors, whom they would thus enable themselves to repay in time, by the plunder which they would take from the enemy. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". And everyone that was in distress, and everyone that was in debt, and everyone that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him. This has been represented as a gang of ruffians, a parcel of banditti, who united themselves to David with the worst designs. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". 1685. The third class of people who came to David at the cave of Adullam were those who were discontented. 1 Samuel 22:2 And every one [that was] in distress, and every one that [was] in debt, and every one [that was] discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-samuel-22.html. 2 The name of his firstborn son was Joel, and the name of his second, Abijah; they were judges in Beersheba. (1 Samuel 22:2). For what? 1 Samuel 22:2 And everyone [that was] in distress In straitened circumstances, through the oppression of men, through poverty, and afflictive providences in their … Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. 10 Best 1-2 Samuel Commentaries Please read: The “Top 10” list below is a starting point for learning about 1-2 Samuel commentaries. The מצוק אישׁ ish matzok, is the man straitened or oppressed; the נשׁא לו אשׁר אישׁ ish asher lo noshe, is the man that hath a creditor, an exacting, cruel creditor; the Jews frequently using their debtors with great severity, Nehemiah 5:5 taking away their lands and vineyards, and bringing into bondage their sons and daughters: and finally, the נפשׁ מר אישׁ ish mar nepesh, is the man bitter of soul, one aggrieved in his mind, or uneasy and discontented; probably, with Saul's tyrannical government, and his implacable persecution of David, who, by this time, must have been well known to have been the intended successor of Saul. Ver. 1871-8. Heb., That had a creditor or an oppressor, extortioner, usurer, who cruelly handled him. embittered. David Guzik commentary on 1 Samuel 22, where David goes hiding in the cave of Adullam, and Saul murders Ahimelech and the other priests. 2 a He said, b “The L ord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". . 1859. one = man. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-samuel-22.html. While lurking in the caverns of those rocky fastnesses, they were on the confines of extensive pasture lands, over which were spread the vast flocks of the neighbouring proprietors. Yes! "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". And every one that was in distress ... gathered themselves unto him - (see the note at Judges 11:3.) Copyright StatementThese files are public domain.Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. I. David sets up his standard in the cave of Adullam, entertains his relations (v. 1), enlists soldiers (v. 2), but removes his aged parents to a more quiet settlement (v. 3, v. 4), and has the prophet Gad for his counsellor (v. 5). We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. BibliographyBullinger, Ethelbert William. thy little army is composed of distressed souls; for none will make thee their Captain whose spiritual circumstances are not desperate. And, therefore, there is reason to conclude, that they were persons who were brought into distress and poverty by other causes, such as, in the course of divine providence, are frequently permitted to afflict the best of men, for their trial, humiliation, or correction. And yet, it was during this period that some of his Mighty Men adhered to his cause. 1: cap. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". But if this were their design they were greatly disappointed, for David never made any improper use of them. Kingdom and Chaos David and His Misfits March 17, 2019 1 Samuel 22:1-2 NIV David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. And every one that was in distress, &c.— See 1 Chronicles 12:8. gathered themselves unto him; to help him, or rather to be helped by him; hoping in time things would take a favourable turn with him, and he should be advanced to the throne, and so their circumstances would be mended thereby: and he became a captain over them; they enlisted themselves in his service, and he took the command of them; he might not know the circumstances of those in debt, nor of any of them thoroughly, nor their views in joining him; however he meant not to shelter them from paying their just debts if able, nor to encourage them in disloyalty to their king, only to make use of them for his own preservation for the present. But now, oh! In straitened circumstances, through the oppression of men, through poverty, and afflictive providences in their families: and everyone that was in debt; and not able to pay their debts, and whose creditors were pressing upon them: and everyone that was discontented; with Saul's government and conduct: or "bitter in soul"F24מר נפש "amarus animo", Pagninus, Montanus. Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented gathered to him; and he became captain over them. Hebrew. Every one… in distress — Suffering from want, or in difficulty with their neighbours. Whatever they were before they came to David, we find that he succeeded in civilizing them, and making profitable to the state those who were before unprofitable. 22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive (1 Corinthians 15:22, emphasis mine). 1874-1909. The poor, improvident, or perhaps unfortunate, debtor was protected by wise laws against the greedy avaricious spirit of his merciless creditor. And every one that was in debt.—Throughout the whole long story of Israel this unhappy love of greed and gain has been a characteristic feature of the chosen race, ever a prominent and ugly sin. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". “But the men were very good unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we anything, as long as we were conversant with them.” Now surely if men’s lives were made good by coming to David, the effect which coming to Christ should have upon our characters is infinitely more beneficial. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Used by Permission. BibliographyExell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "1 Samuel 22:2". John Trapp Complete Commentary. "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". 2 Samuel 7:1-17 (2017) [NEW SERIES] English Standard Version 2 Samuel 7:1-17 ESV Easy-Print Commentary 2 Samuel 7:1-17 ESV Easy-Print Large Print Commentary English Standard Version and Student Study Handout for But then this is to be remarked, that David did not do this till he found out by Jonathan's information, and many other most certain proofs, that Saul determined to have his life. In Proverbs, for instance, we have some conspicuous instances. Arnold’s commentary on the books of Samuel in the NIVAC series is one of the better contributions. (E. J. Hardy, M. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Here is where we learn that “Samuel was serving the LORD under Eli” (verse 1a; CEB), even though, quite unexpectedly, we hear just a few verses later that “Samuel … Continue reading "Commentary on 1 Samuel 3:1-21" Discontented — Dissatisfied with the government of Saul. In debt — Hebrew, had a creditor; and who, having no means of meeting their obligations, were likely to be sold to their creditors. And every one that was in debt.] Along with members of his family, David's supporters at this time were, in a word, every outlaw in the kingdom. "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". Until I found myself totally insolvent, and unable to satisfy the debt of God's law; until my soul felt distress from the sense of sin, the alarms of conscience, and the accusations of Satan; until discontent under a load of guilt, and the fear of the wrath to come, compelled me to seek redemption; never wast thou dear to me, nor did I desire to come under thy banner! You can read through all of 2-samuel 22 below.Click the verse number to read commentary, definitions, meanings, and notesfor that particular 2-samuel 22 verse. Heb., Bitter of soul. The strength of the NIVAC series is its focus on contemporary applications, and Arnold is helpful here, but he is also concerned to deal with the original meaning of the text and does so very well. The Biblical Illustrator. Copyright StatementThe New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. Cannot we see in David collecting around him all who were in distress, in debt, or for any reason discontented, a foreshadow of the Friend of publicans and sinners, of Him who said, “Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.” Again a man’s religion may be concealed in his heart, and may not do the good it ought to do as an example till distress come upon him and cause it to be seen in all its power. BibliographyPoole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Then the ark is brought to Kirjath-Jearim where it remains for 20 years (1 Samuel 6; 1 Samuel 7:1-2). https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-samuel-22.html. 1 Samuel 22:2 "And every one [that was] in distress, and every one that [was] in debt, and every one [that was] discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four nephesh. discontented = bitter of soul. In the Mosaic Law, most stringent regulations were laid down to correct and mitigate this ruling passion of avarice among the Jews. "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient, John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible, and there were with him about four hundred men, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible, Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments, George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged, Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, Commentary Critical and Explanatory - Unabridged, Kretzmann's Popular Commentary of the Bible, Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. David quickly organised the refugees, among whom, by degrees, many a man of mark and approved valour and ability were numbered. Our own great dramatist, some three centuries ago, evidently without attempt at exaggeration, selects the avaricious, grasping Jew as the central figure of one of his most famous dramas. Besides, he invaded no cities, nor took any opportunities for fighting, but went into lurking holes, and inaccessible places, and to foreign nations, religiously abstaining from injuring his countrymen, and, let me add, from doing any hurt to Saul, or disturbing his government. Soon after, these numbers were swelled to 600, and these probably only were the chosen men-at-arms of the little force, which, no doubt, was numerically far greater. App-14. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-samuel-22.html. 1-samuel 22:1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him. BibliographyCoke, Thomas. no uncommon occurrence in the daily life of the people. ; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. BibliographyGill, John. Isaiah 27:13. John Trapp Complete Commentary 1 Samuel 2:22 Now Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did unto all Israel; and how they lay with the women that assembled [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. [1 Samuel 25:15] In the Gospel we read that our Saviour received him that had been born blind, and was now cast out. In many a true believer piety is like a drum, which nobody hears of unless it be beaten. BibliographyTrapp, John. Now there were about four hundred men with him. 3. Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/1-samuel-22.html. New York. And everyone [that was] in distress In straitened circumstances, through the oppression of men, through poverty, and afflictive providences in their families: and everyone [that was] in debt; and not able to pay their debts, and whose creditors were pressing upon them: and everyone [that was] discontented; with Saul's government and conduct: or "bitter in soul" F24; distressed and uneasy in their minds, being pinched with want, or pressed with sore afflictions, which made them very disconsolate: these. God gave them what And then he neither assaulted any place with them, nor sought for an occasion to fight, but avoided it by seeking for secret and secure places of retreat, sometimes in the deserts, sometimes, in foreign nations, always taking care not to hurt his countrymen, and never allowing his men to make incursions upon any but the enemies of Israel. 22 And David spoke z to the L ord the words of this song on the day when the L ord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. It is not necessary to strain the words of the original in order to prove that these were oppressed people, and not exceptionable characters, as some have done.
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