, On June 7, the dissidents published the first (and only) issue of the Nauvoo Expositor, calling for reform within the church and appealing to the political views of the county's other faiths as well as those of former Mormons. Among these five groups was a quorum of twelve apostles. , The first of Smith's wives, Emma Hale, gave birth to nine children during their marriage, five of whom died before the age of two.  Shortly after the conference, Smith dispatched Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, and others on a mission to proselytize Native Americans. , In October 1827, Joseph and Emma moved from Palmyra to Harmony (now Oakland), Pennsylvania, aided by a relatively prosperous neighbor, Martin Harris.  For instance, Smith's revision nearly tripled the length of the first five chapters of Genesis in what would become the Book of Moses.  Some of Smith's chosen successors, such as Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, had left the church. He appointed his male followers to priesthoods, named for the biblical figures Melchizedek and Aaron, that were overseen by the office of high priest. The monument was erected by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which recognizes Smith as its first president and founding prophet. By this time, Smith's experiences with mob violence led him to believe that his faith's survival required greater militancy against anti-Mormons.  Smith's trip was also hastened by a mob of Ohio residents who were incensed over the United Order and Smith's political power; the mob beat Smith and Rigdon unconscious, tarred and feathered them, and left them for dead.  At first, Smith's church had little sense of hierarchy; his religious authority was derived from visions and revelations.  In 1841, Don Carlos, who had been born a year earlier, died of malaria.  He taught that the Church of Christ restored through him was a latter-day restoration of the early Christian faith, which had been lost in the Great Apostasy. Members of the church were later called "Latter Day Saints" or "Mormons", and Smith announced a revelation in 1838 which renamed the church as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Joseph Smith was born on December 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vermont. Name at birth: Joseph Smith, Jr. Raised a Christian in Vermont and New York, Joseph Smith was the founding prophet of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as the Mormon church. Current statistics published by the LDS Church show 16.1 million members of that denomination. January 22–23 Kirtland: Joseph organizes the School of the Prophets (see Doctrine and Covenants 88:70–80, 117–141).  Conversely, within Mormonism, Smith was remembered first and foremost as a prophet, martyred to seal the testimony of his faith.  Young, whom Emma feared and despised, was suspicious of her desire to preserve the family's assets from inclusion with those of the church, and thought she would be even more troublesome because she openly opposed plural marriage. Justifying the practice of polygamy by reference to the precedent of Abraham, the first of the Hebrew patriarchs, Smith was “sealed” (the ceremony that binds men and women in marriage for eternity) to about 30 wives, though no known children came from these unions. (the exact number of wives is uncertain.). The Prophet Joseph was born on December 23, 1805, the 5th of 11 children. In June 1843, enemies of Smith convinced a reluctant Illinois Governor Thomas Ford to extradite Smith to Missouri on an old charge of treason. , Throughout her life, Emma Smith frequently denied that her husband had ever taken additional wives.  Smith's brother Hyrum, had he survived, would have had the strongest claim, followed by Smith's brother Samuel, who died mysteriously a month after his brothers. As president of the Ladies' Relief Society, Emma authorized publishing a certificate in the same year denouncing polygamy, and denying her husband as its creator or participant. He was martyred on June 27, 1844. During the next two-and-a-half years he married or was sealed to about 30 additional women, ten of whom were already married to other men. Joseph Smith Jr. Joseph Smith, originally Joseph Smith, Jr., (born December 23, 1805, Sharon, Vermont, U.S.—died June 27, 1844, Carthage, Illinois), American prophet and founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Emma believed in her husband’s calling but could not abide additional wives. He died on February 11, 2012 at 59 years of age.  Emma campaigned publicly against polygamy, and was the main signatory of a petition in 1842, with a thousand female signatures, denying that Smith was connected with polygamy.  On April 6, 1839, after a grand jury hearing in Davis County, Smith and his companions escaped custody, almost certainly with the connivance of the sheriff and guards. Through modern DNA testing of Smith's relatives, it's likely that the Smith family were of Irish descent originally.  The Council of Fifty had a theoretical claim to succession, but it was a secret organization. The leadership of the church then fell to Brigham Young, who dedicated himself to perpetuating Smith’s teachings and program.  Believers tend to focus on his achievements and religious teachings, deemphasizing his personal defects, while detractors focus on his mistakes, legal troubles, and controversial doctrines. The two were taken to Carthage, the county seat, for a hearing, and, while imprisoned, they were shot by a mob on June 27, 1844.  Among Mormons, he is regarded as a prophet on par with Moses and Elijah. , Though Smith initially viewed God the Father as a spirit, he eventually began teaching that God was an advanced and glorified man, embodied within time and space. He had no other wife but me; nor did he to my knowledge ever have". , The early Nauvoo years were a period of doctrinal innovation. Smith said the translation was a religious record of Middle-Eastern indigenous Americans, and were engraved in an unknown language, called reformed Egyptian. Governor Lilburn Boggs then ordered that the Mormons be "exterminated or driven from the state".  (Rockwell was later tried and acquitted.)  In July 1843, Smith dictated a revelation directing Emma to accept plural marriage, but the two were not reconciled until September 1843, after Emma began participating in temple ceremonies.  Zion also became less a refuge from an impending tribulation than a great building project. 1 On December 23, 1805, Lucy Mack Smith delivered a son named after his father, Joseph Smith.  This doctrine of endowment evolved through the 1830s, until in 1842, the Nauvoo endowment included an elaborate ceremony containing elements similar to Freemasonry and the Jewish tradition of Kabbalah. According to the book itself, one of the prophets, a general named Mormon, abridged and assembled the records of his people, engraving the history on gold plates. , The following day, the Latter Day Saints surrendered to 2,500 state troops and agreed to forfeit their property and leave the state. The first revelations Joseph Smith Joseph Smith ©. Joseph Smith Jr. Carthage, Illinois, United States. By 1838, Smith had abandoned plans to redeem Zion in Jackson County, and after Smith and Rigdon arrived in Missouri, the town of Far West became the new "Zion". Smith was held responsible for the failure, and there were widespread defections from the church, including many of Smith's closest advisers. The eldest, Alvin (born in 1828), died within hours of birth, as did twins Thaddeus and Louisa (born in 1831). , Before 1832, most of Smith's revelations dealt with establishing the church, gathering his followers, and building the City of Zion.  In March 1836, at the temple's dedication, many participants in the endowment reported seeing visions of angels, speaking in tongues, and prophesying.  While many changes involved straightening out seeming contradictions or making small clarifications, other changes added large "lost" portions to the text. Hyrum, who was trying to secure the door, was killed instantly with a shot to the face. Smith, however, never viewed the wording to be infallible. When did Joseph Smith die? Members of the church, known as Saints, gathered first at Independence, Missouri, on the western edge of American settlement.  Bennett used his connections in the Illinois legislature to obtain an unusually liberal charter for the new city, which Smith renamed "Nauvoo" (Hebrew נָאווּ, meaning "to be beautiful").  Smith's last revelation, on the "New and Everlasting Covenant", was recorded in 1843, and dealt with the theology of family, the doctrine of sealing, and plural marriage. , Although the Book of Mormon drew many converts to the church, Fawn Brodie argued that the "book lives today because of the prophet, not he because of the book.  Smith continued to live in Ohio, but visited Missouri again in early 1832 to prevent a rebellion of prominent church members who believed the church in Missouri was being neglected.  More nuanced interpretations include viewing Smith as: a prophet who had normal human weaknesses; a "pious fraud" who believed he was called of God to preach repentance and felt justified inventing visions in order to convert people; or a gifted "mythmaker" who was the product of his Yankee environment. Updates? Born into a poor farming family, he was the fifth child of 11 — nine of whom survived childhood.  When embarrassing rumors of "spiritual wifery" got abroad, Smith forced Bennett's resignation as Nauvoo mayor. Smith carried the Y-DNA marker R-M222, a subclade of Haplogroup R1b found almost entirely in people of Northwestern Irish descent today. Early years.  The charter also authorized the Nauvoo Legion, an autonomous militia whose actions were limited only by state and federal constitutions. For instance, in the early 1830s, he temporarily instituted a form of religious communism, called the United Order, that required Latter Day Saints to give all their property to the church, which was divided among the faithful.
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