Malware injections are scripts of malicious code that hackers inject into a cloud computing service. 116: 116; 2009:109–116. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap Working Group has gathered high level standards that are relevant for Cloud Computing. In Trusted Infrastructure Technologies Conference, 2008. The paper focuses on one of the three service delivery models, Platform-as-a-Service(PaaS). IaaS essentially refers to purchasing the basic storage, processing power and networking to support the delivery of cloud computing applications. The public cloud refers to software, infrastructure, or platforms offered as a service by 3 rd parties over the Internet, referred to as Cloud Service Providers or CSPs. Shared responsibility in the cloud. Unlike traditional client-based software development using tools such as Microsoft Visual Studio , PaaS offers a shared development environment, so authentication, access control, and authorization mechanisms must combine to ensure that customers are kept completely separate from each other. Accessed: 16-Jul-2011. They claimed that RSA is the most recognizable algorithm, and it can be used to protect data in cloud environments. Commun ACM 2010, 53(6):46–51. Jasti A, Shah P, Nagaraj R, Pendse R: Security in multi-tenancy cloud. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2009:128–133. SSL is the underpinnings of most of the "security" utilized in the cloud and, for that matter, the Internet in general. Proceedings of Black Hat Security Conference, Washington, DC 2008. http://www.eecs.umich.edu/fjgroup/pubs/blackhat08-migration.pdf. The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure his own applications without installing any platform or tools on their local machines. They concluded that HyperSafe successfully prevented all these attacks, and that the performance overhead is low. Virtual networks are also target for some attacks especially when communicating with remote virtual machines. Virtualized environments are vulnerable to all types of attacks for normal infrastructures; however, security is a greater challenge as virtualization adds more points of entry and more interconnection complexity . APTC’08, Third Asia-Pacific. Hashizume K, Yoshioka N, Fernandez EB: Three misuse patterns for Cloud Computing. For this analysis, we focus mainly on technology-based vulnerabilities; however, there are other vulnerabilities that are common to any organization, but they have to be taken in consideration since they can negatively impact the security of the cloud and its underlying platform. PaaS application security comprises two software layers: Security of the PaaS platform itself (i.e., runtime engine), and Security of customer applications deployed on a PaaS platform . SAVVIS; Available: http://www.savvis.com/en-us/info_center/documents/hos-whitepaper-securingvirutalcomputeinfrastructureinthecloud.pdf Available: Wu H, Ding Y, Winer C, Yao L: Network Security for virtual machine in Cloud Computing. Additionally, security controls and self-service entitlements offered by the PaaS platform could pose a problem if not properly configured. endobj We systematically analyze now existing security vulnerabilities and threats of Cloud Computing. Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure: Information Security Briefing 01/2010 Cloud Computing. Gaithersburg, MD: NIST, Special Publication 800–144; 2011. In order to overcome this threat, an image management system was proposed, Mirage . Even at this early stage in cloud adoption, users of PaaS services are raising the question of the portability of their applications-- not to a given PaaS provider, but from that first provider to a different one, or even back to the data center. Some surveys have discussed security issues about clouds without making any difference between vulnerabilities and threats. 10.1007/s11416-012-0168-x. Largely because of the relatively lower degree of abstraction, IaaS offers greater tenant or customer control over security than do PaaS or SaaS . International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence 2011, 3(1):38–46. IEEE Security Privacy 2010, 8(1):77–80. <> Also, another challenge is that there are different types of virtualization technologies, and each type may approach security mechanisms in different ways. Available: . Resolving such problems may increase the usage of cloud thereby reducing the amount spent for resources. One can either create her own VM image from scratch, or one can use any image stored in the provider’s repository. IBM J Res Dev 2009, 53(4):560–571. Online. Future Internet 2012, 4(2):469–487. Las Vegas, US: CSREA Press; 2010:36–42. However, the underlying compute, network, and storage infrastructure is controlled by cloud providers. Security of PaaS clouds is considered from multiple perspective including access control, service continuity and privacy while protecting together the service provider and the user. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:35–41. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin; 2009. However, developers also have to understand that any changes in PaaS components can compromise the security of their applications. IEEE Security Privacy 2011, 9(2):50–57. In Proceedings of the 4th Int. IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA; 2010:211–216. In some respects, Cloud Computing represents the maturing of these technologies and is a marketing term to represent that maturity and the services they provide . In Proceedings of APSEC 2010 Cloud Workshop. As described in this paper, storage, virtualization, and networks are the biggest security concerns in Cloud Computing. Web application scanners  is a program which scans web applications through the web front-end in order to identify security vulnerabilities. We also want to thank the GSyA Research Group at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, in Ciudad Real, Spain for collaborating with us in this project. This approach includes the following security features: access control framework, image filters, a provenance tracking, and repository maintenance services. From the perspective of the application development, developers face the complexity of building secure applications that may be hosted in the cloud. As a result, security is sometimes inconsistent, and can be seen as a barrier to moving applications to the cloud. CSA has issued an Identity and Access Management Guidance  which provides a list of recommended best practiced to assure identities and secure access management. It's a logical next step for organizations that want to move specific processes and applications into the cloud, but that still want t… An attacker can compromise the migration module in the VMM and transfer a victim virtual machine to a malicious server. Also, even when virtual machines are offline, they can be vulnerable ; that is, a virtual machine can be instantiated using an image that may contain malicious code. Data may be stored on different places with different legal regimes that can compromise its privacy and security. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc.; 2009. Therefore, the research question addressed by our research was the following: What security vulnerabilities and threats are the most important in Cloud Computing which have to be studied in depth with the purpose of handling them? Privacy If another customer uses this image, the virtual machine that this customer creates will be infected with the hidden malware. J Internet Serv Appl 4, 5 (2013). Fernandez EB, Yoshioka N, Washizaki H: Modeling Misuse Patterns. [Online]. In First International Conference on Cloud Computing (CloudCom), Beijing, China. Winkler V: Securing the Cloud: Cloud computer Security techniques and tactics. Washington DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:395–398. Version 2.3 University of keele (software engineering group, school of computer science and mathematics) and Durham. Han-zhang W, Liu-sheng H: An improved trusted cloud computing platform model based on DAA and privacy CA scheme. PaaS & Security - Problems, Solutions, Vendors PaaS & Security - Platform as a Service Platform-as-a-Service (Paas) is a cloud computing model where the service provider offers a platform that enables customers to develop, run, and manage applications. In the first maturity model, each customer has his own customized instance of the software. Same as SaaS, PaaS also brings data security issues and other challenges that are described as follows: Moreover, PaaS does not only provide traditional programming languages, but also does it offer third-party web services components such as mashups [10, 38]. In The 17th International workshop on quality of service. This threat is feasible because any legitimate user can create a VM image and publish it on the provider’s repository where other users can retrieve them. In 1st International conference on parallel distributed and grid Computing (PDGC). Since data from multiple tenants is likely to be stored in the same database, the risk of data leakage between these tenants is high. In this paper we are going to some major security issues of current cloud computing environments. Kitchenham B, Charters S: Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering.
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