Indicate the degree of probability (note how the claim progressively weakens): Reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. Reducing fat intake may lower the risk of heart disease. The next big step is to write the discussion. Help us improve your experience by providing feedback on this page. The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. Yet, many students write it in a rushed manner. Therefore, you should only use the studies mentioned in the … For example, a thesis in oral history and one in marketing may both use interview data that has been collected and analysed in similar ways, but the way the results of this analysis are presented will be very different because the questions they are trying to answer are different. Below are some important principles for reporting experimental, quantitative (survey) and qualitative studies. Copyright © 2020 Monash University. If you're feeling unwell, get tested for COVID-19 and stay home until you’ve received a negative result. Individual data extracts can be connected back into this structure through a process of 'tell-show-tell'.Click on the highlighted text below to read the comments. Dissertation discussion is the chapter where you explore the relevance, significance and meanings of your findings - giving you the opportunity to showcase your talents in terms of describing and analyzing results of your study.. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. In presenting your own interpretation of the results, consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternative interpretations from the literature. Include what you need to support the points you need to make. What else do your findings tell you, over and above what you initially set out to investigate? Along with noting your work's limitations, it's helpful to also suggest follow-up studies. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. Claims should therefore be specific and precise, and the level of certainty must match the level of evidence. Follow these do's and don'ts. If so, why might this be? DON'T: End with it. In reporting the data, it is generally important to convey both the themes and some of the flavour of the actual words. Offering no concluding statements or ending with the limitations. Make reference to similarities or differences in approach or findings. It must be in whole sentences and you must not stop. Do the results conf… There is a great deal of disciplinary variation in the presentation of findings. "If your study was not a true experiment, replace verbs that imply causation with words and phrases such as 'correlated with,' 'was associated with' and 'related to,'" write John Cone, PhD, and Sharon Foster, PhD, in a forthcoming revision of "Dissertations and Theses from Start to Finish" (APA, 2006). As soon as you have gathered and analysed your data, you can start to write up the findings chapter of your dissertation paper, which is your chance to report the most notable findings of your research work and relate them to research hypothesis or research questions as set out in the introduction chapter of dissertation. Now read over what you've written. Reducing fat intake contributes to lowering the risk of heart disease. 2. Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating, Approaches to assignments in your faculty, Principles for writing a Literary Studies Essay, Steps for writing a Literary Studies essay, Sample Business and Economics reflective essay, Understanding case notes and marker expectations, Reflective writing and critical incidents, Essay writing in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Reflective practice in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, most common modes of computer infection in Australian businesses, home disks are the most frequent source of infection, the wastewaters from plants A and B and of similar composition, their work with children was clearly the area of their professional lives that was bringing the most satisfaction, although there were some challenges identified, the data reveal that they were all seeking ways to improve their pedagogy and achieving success in different ways. Research & Learning Online Webmaster Team, The difference between expected and obtained results. It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. You need to make connections, and make apparent your reasons for saying that data should be interpreted in one way rather than another. You can read more about reporting qualitative results in the next section, Reporting conventions. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to … Speculation is fine as long as you acknowledge that you're speculating and you don't stray too far from your data, say experts. The discussion of findings is often considered one of the most important part of thesis project/research work in the sense that, this is where the researcher of a project topic presents the underlying findings of his research. But don't dwell on the future at the expense of the present,says Scholl. These include stating your interpretations, declaring your opinions, explaining the effects of your findings, and making suggestions and predictions for future research. https://wordvice.com/research-writing-tips-editing-manuscript- Thanks for letting us know that this page . It is useful to remind yourself what the task of writing up research is all about: …the major task of writing [about our research] involves working out how to make contextually grounded theoretical points that are viewed as a contribution by the relevant professional community of readers. Monash University is a registered higher education provider under the TEQSA Act 2011. reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. How will you decide which aspects of your findings are the most interesting and important? Each chapter needs an introduction outlining its organisation. The data itself usually consists of words, from written documents or interview transcripts (but may include images), which have been analysed in some way, often into themes. David Evans and Paul Gruba (2002, p.112) remind us that our minds continue to work on problems when we aren't thinking about them consciously. It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. 2. In these pages we consider these two activities separately, while recognising that in many kinds of thesis they will be integrated. Reporting conventions differ according to whether the data involved is quantitative or qualitative. Angela suggested that in her second year of teaching she had changed in that she was programming in a "more child oriented" way. There are many ways to write up both your findings and discussion. Qualitative data is difficult to present neatly in tables and figures. University of Michigan Press, We acknowledge and pay respects to the Elders and Traditional Owners of the land on which our four Australian campuses stand. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to … gradually leads the reader to interpretations of the material and to more general implications of the results. Limit your discussion to a handful of the most important points, as Sackett did on the advice of his adviser. Write about your data for 5 minutes. It seems that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. Why and how? DON'T: Exaggerate. You usually present the data you obtained in appropriate figures (diagrams, graphs, tables and photographs) and you then comment on this data. Ask yourself these questions: 1. When to Write Dissertation Findings Chapter. Lapsing into causal language when your data were correlational. There are generally accepted guidelines for presenting the results of statistical analyses of data about populations or groups of people, plants or animals. 2. For many kinds of research, the main work of interpretation cannot be done until most of the data has been collected and analysed. Are your findings very different from other studies? Evans and Gruba suggest you try these techniques: 1. As a researcher, you are expected to distinguish carefully between: Therefore, very strong claims, like the one below, are rare in academic writing. Some researchers suggest that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. "Many students reach this stage of their careers having been focused for several years on the 'trees,'" says Yale University cognitive psychology professor Brian Scholl, PhD. Why and how? This is writing to think. Sounds simple, right? Freewriting on a topic means taking a fresh piece of paper or opening a new word-processor document and writing anything that comes into your head on that topic for a limited time. Starting with limitations instead of implications. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. "This section of the dissertation provides an opportunity to revisit the 'forest.'". Do your results agree with previous research? Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. Here you will be expected to demonstrate how your research findings answer the research questions established or test the hypothesis stated. develops the questions by discussing them. You can read more about reporting quantitative results in the next section, Reporting conventions. Table 5 shows the most common modes of computer infection in Australian businesses. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. Demographic data that describe the sample are usually presented first. "The moral here is to try to find a balance where you set a tone that indeed celebrates interesting findings without too many leaps, while at the same time reporting limitations without being unnecessarily negative," says David. Remember, adds Scholl, you want readers to remember you and your work. Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook (2nd ed.). Fellow students, your adviser and your dissertation committee members can help provide that outside perspective, adds Yale clinical psychology professor Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, PhD, who teaches a course on writing in psychology. 1. 3. In a traditional doctoral thesis, this will consist of a number of chapters where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it. The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information "Limitations should be noted, but after you've discussed your positive results.". The majority of studies indicate that for this age group, reducing fat intake contributes to lowering the risk of heart disease. 2. Our resources will help you with everything from reading to note-taking, and time management to exams. Failing to acknowledge limitations or dismissing them out of hand.Â. You've conducted your research, analyzed your findings and written your results. Be guided by your research questions(s) and the nature of your data. If so, what do they add to it? "Too often I am left excited not by what was in the dissertation, but by what was not in the dissertation. Information contained in this section will highlight the finer details of writing up your findings and discussion sections. Academic Writing for Graduate Students (2nd ed.). The blog post explains how to write discussion section of your paper. Sage Publications. Quantitative analysis revealed some variation in the composition of the rods in the various exservice samples (Figure 7 and Table 5). In this chapter the results will be analyzed via thematic content analysis within the context of the literature reviewed in chapter two. In a thesis including publication, it will be the central section of an article. By exploring those kinds of implications, students address what Scholl considers the most important-and often overlooked-purpose of the discussion: to directly explain why others should care about your findings. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. What, therefore, has become of your original research problem and the literature regarding it? The first step is to clarify for yourself what you know now, as a result of your research. In the discussion section, you can provide interpretations based on your observations. Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives. Give them something clear, concise and interesting to read, and they're sure to appreciate it. Another aspect of making clear the contribution of your research is to draw out the implications of your findings. In longer pieces of work, these chapters are usually separate. You could try highlighting key words, or identifying any points that need further investigation. For example, a clinical study might discuss how psychologists might apply the findings in a clinical setting or a social psychology project might talk about political implications. 3. While the amount of discussion required in a thesis may vary according to discipline, all disciplines expect some interpretation of the findings that makes these connections. When he defended his master's thesis, his committee told him his conclusions went too far out on a limb. Going overboard on limitations, leading readers to wonder why they should read on. 3. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. Write down all the things you know now that you didn't know when you started the research. Presenting new results; such data belong in the results section. "The point of a discussion, in my view, is to transcend 'just the facts,' and engage in productive speculation," he says. Consistently use ‘this’ to refer to your own research and refer to previous research by name, place or time. Day, R. A. Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. Ideally, you will have written them down as they came to you. Are you working on a research project? Therefore it is important for you to investigate the conventions of your own discipline, by looking at journal articles and theses. Now check the headings against your research question(s). After that, the organisation will vary according to the kind of research being reported. Composing Qualitative Research. Do your findings only support the hypothesis in part? Making lists works well for some people, but not for others. How do your 'findings' shed light on these concepts and, through them, on the substantive topics you studied?
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